History of Jazz in Africa

Papers written about Jazz in Africa


by Struan Douglas, Afribeat.com

=========== [Further adapted from https://struandouglas.wordpress.com/2021/11/18/barneys-way-a-tribute-to-barney-rachabane/ by Struan Douglas, Afribeat.com] ==============

In 1980 Barney and Elizabeth Rachabane had their last-born child – Octavia Rachabane. Their first born child was already out of school, and the other two were strong achievers. However life in Pimville, Soweto, had been very difficult during the 1960s and 70s for musicians, in particular. Barney had opened a curtain business and a corner spa shop just to ensure his children had shoes for school.

Octavia was a blessing. Her dad, born in 1946, was a virtuoso saxophone player that despite the difficulties of the period, had played regularly throughout the 60s and 70s with many bands in Cape Town and Johannesburg. He was with the Rockets in Cape Town, and a classic photo exists of him performing at the Market Theatre alongside Bheki Mseleku and Allen Kwela.

Barney’s long-time collaborator throughout this era was Dennis Mpale, the legendary trumpeter. Together they formed the Jazz Disciples, The Soul Giants and the Count Wellington Jazz Band. Barney also had his own project, The Sound Proofs. 

Saxman Rachabane with Jazz Disciples: credit Ian Bruce Huntley

In 1982, Octavia had her first taste of the travelling life of the musician when she travelled with her mom and dad for the TechnoBush project with Hugh Masekela in Botswana.  Hugh was in exile, living in New York since the 60s. Barney never went into exile. He stayed at home. But regardless of the path musicians took, they were all united by the common reality of livelihood.

Apartheid in South Africa had already been examined through the 1976 youth uprising in Soweto. And Paul Simon’s Graceland recordings in 1985-6 eventually broke the cultural boycott and started what would become the musical march to freedom. And he built it around the music of mbaqanga, or what he called “the reggae of South Africa.”  Barney, himself a mbaqanga jazz pioneer, had joined the Graceland project which also included Joseph Shabalala and Ray Phiri.  Together, they formed a life-long friendship with Paul Simon as seen in a telling photograph which hangs in Barney’s lounge of them playing together on his stoep around 2012. 

B Rachabane with Yonela Manana Dec 2019

Graceland also brought in much money for the family (“briefcases,” Barney said), and gave Barney the opportunity to add a second storey to his family home.  However, money and the music business was touch and go since Barney went professional at the age of 9 in 1956. This was the age of the “Pennywhistle Jive” or the “Kwela Craze.” Barney was already very hip and earned a bit through his pennywhistle busking on the street corners of Johannesburg.  Born into the pennywhistle hotspot of Alexandra Township, near Sandton Johannesburg, in 1946, he joined with many penny-whistle players, like Ntemi Piliso who formed the African Jazz Pioneers, Spokes Mashiyane  who started the Alexandra Dead End Kids, and Lemmy ’Special’ Mabaso who had the Alexandra Junior Bright Boys. Barney Rachabane started the Alexandra Junior All Stars who made their first hit, called the politically incorrect ‘Piccanini” in 1957 with an independent record company called Jive.  Not much is known about the role Jive records played in exploiting South African music but it grew to become the largest independent record company in 2000. Barney never saw any royalties.

Barney Rachabane, 10 years old, Jan 1959: Bailey Archives

Barney “Bunny” Rachabane hit the news when his Alexandra Junior All Stars were stranded in Cape Town after appearing in Lofty Adam’s ‘Africa Sings!’ The Union of Southern African Artists came to the rescue and sent the boys money to come home to the Rand. Immediately they were back they were plunged right into the ‘Township Jazz,’ wrote Drum Magazine.

Barney and Lemmy’s penywhistle comradery reached a turning point when Barney’s role as the pennywhistler in the musical, ‘Kong Kong’ was given to Lemmy Mabaso. Barney’s mum had said her son was too young for a musical that was scheduled to go to London. It may have been a bitter pill for Barney to swallow at that tender age, but it was for the best and perhaps the very first indication of what Barney means when he says, “I walk with God.”

Those years at home became the seminal moulding period for Barney Rachabane. He started building for his future, met his future wife at age 16 in 1962, and started a family.  Dorkay House, where Barney learned to read music, was abuzz with the stars of that era, jazz singers Miriam Makeba, Dolly Rathebe and Letta Mbulu, music educators such as Phineas Phetoe and the finest saxophonists Zakes Nkosi, Mackay Davashe and Kippie Moeketsi.  Soon, Barney joined ranks as an alto saxophonist and shared the stage in 1963 with the Chris McGregor’s Castle Lager Big Band. By age 19, Barney had his baptism of fire in African Jazz, recording with the all saxophone section of Kippie Moeketsi, Dudu Pukwana, Mackay Davashe and Christopher “Mra” Nguckana, impressing one international producer with his “attack and swing”.   Pianist Rashid Lanie describes: “Bra Barney was able to fuse elements of Bebop Jazz with Kwela and Mbaqanga like no other. His fearless approach to his improvisations and compositions were world class all the while fingering those iconic Barney Rachabane screaming cry-licks he was so well known for. And lest I forget, his sneaky humour too.”

By the 1980s Barney was known as “the most soulful saxophone player in the world,” according to Paul Simon.  He performed at festivals and events on all 5 continents, particularly with Graceland, and he recorded two solo albums in London produced by Hugh Masekela.  Barney’s only son Leonard studied saxophone at the UKZN jazz department directed by Darius Brubeck. This was a golden period for jazz in Durban with two generations of musicians sharing the bandstand at the Rainbow Restaurant in Pinetown under the banner “Jazz for the struggle and the struggle for jazz.” Other  young students of the day, like bass player Lex Futshane, and trumpeter Feya Faku, performed with the veterans, including Barney and Winston Mankunku, on a regular basis and in a manifestation of how the baton is passed from one generation to the next.  As veteran trumpeter Prince Lengoasa says, “It is the divinity and godliness in us that makes us care for others as we care for ourselves. UBUNTU in practice.”  Some highlights of this era were recorded by Melt2000, ‘Darius Brubeck Live in New Orleans’.  

The Children

Barney faced family complexities.  Son Leonard was a rising star on the UKZN jazz scene.  It was through Leonard’s band that his sister, Octavia, still at school, had her first break as a singer.  Leonard’s death was sudden and a shock to the Rachabane family as was the puzzle around his unborn child.  After his death, records in South Africa showed that his girlfriend had given the child up for adoption, destination unknown. Miraculously, one teenage violinist from a wonderful home in Australia uncovered from adoption records of a ‘David Webster’.  David was reunited with his grandparents in 2014 and with cousins, like born saxophonist Oscar Rachabane.

(L-R) Struan Douglas, Octavia, Barney, David, Oscar at home-Dec 2019

Oscar grew up on the penny-whistle, but fell prey to substance abuse.  Barney never understood what happened to Oscar, but were expecting his return from rehabilitation soon.  Barney knew so well the downfalls musicians can face, having to himself overcome a drinking problem. Many of his colleagues never did.

Wife Elizabeth and daughter Octavia were planning their second visit to Australia when Elizabeth died suddenly on the 31st of July 2021. She was 73. She and Barney were together 57 years.  This author had first met Barney in 2012 at the Grahamstown National Arts and Jazz Festival when the three Rachabane’s –  Octavia, Barney, and Oscar – performed in one of the most exciting family bands I had seen.  After journeying with them for another 9 years, I learned on August 1 this year of Elizabeth’s passing from his fretful phone call to me.   I visited him for what became the last time then, and as I drove away from the family home in Pimville, he sat on the stoep with his arm raised in power. The image he gave me was of the indestructible beat of Soweto. Barney died three months after his wife on 13 November 2021.

Octavia had burst onto the South African jazz scene whilst still a student. She was lead singer in Louis Moholo’s Dedication Orchestra at the age of 19. Her sheer beauty, together with a real knowledge of this jazz music was invigorating.  Her musical dedication was always to her father. Over the last twenty years of his career, they performed together at various venues around Johannesburg and travelled together for festivals and sessions, including a Graceland Reunion in 2016 in Scotland.

Oscar played with such an infectious joy and seems to be making a comeback. He took a break from rehabilitation to perform at Barney’s Memorial, blowing his sax alongside Khaya Mahlangu and Mthunzi Mvubhu with that typical Oscar confidence.

“I walk with God,” Barney describes his life-journey. And this was abundantly clear at the funeral service, where a Department of Sports Arts and Culture police escort led a wake including some of the finest Johannesburg musicians of all generations right into Heroes Acre in WestPark .  Here, the great man was laid to rest among some of our other jazz heroes like Bra Hugh and Bra Victor Ntoni.     

Legacy was important to Barney. Today we have a generation of young lions that have learnt from the greats. In 2015 Barney played in the Mzansi Music Ensemble, an orchestra playing Victor Ntoni’s music with over 50 years age -difference between oldest and youngest performers. As the musical director of the show said, “The South African Alto is in great hands. The proverbial baton has been passed to Mthunzi and Moses and Nhlanhla.” 

Some of Barney’s unfinished dreams include the completion of his biography by Octavia, the release of his last solo recording, Upstairs on the Township, and a book of solos. Khaya Mahlangu mentioned at the memorial the need for a Barney Rachabane bursary for up-coming saxophonists.

Upstairs in the Township is re-compiled and edited from an unfinished session recorded around 2010. Barney produced, arranged, composed and performed.  No other details are named. This album is currently being remastered for release hopefully in December 2021. More information: struan@afribeat.com

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Jazz provides prayers for peace in hard times: Dinga Sikwebu reflects

All Jazz Radio publishes excerpts presented by unionist, social activist, and jazz lover, Dinga Sikwebu* on his Facebook page of 18 July 2021 which he entitled, ‘Umthandazo weJazz ‘ (Jazz Prayer for Peace) and from his article published in Amandla Online Issue 77, August 2021 https://aidc.org.za/umthandazo-wejazz-jazz-prayer-for-peace/. On 18 July 2021, Dinga Sikwebu spoke to a gathering at eDikeni restaurant in Sandton, Johannesburg, in response to the recent violence in South Africa’s two Provinces and covid-related deaths. Jazzmen Yonela Mnana and Sisonki Xonti expressed concern about what musicians could do to bring more peace to the Nation. Sikwebu’s talk was also meant to mobilise support for Abahlai base Mjondolo, including the community of their national spokesperson, Thapelo Mohapi.

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Dinga Sikwebu – credit OIL.co.za


Let me first extend my gratitude to the organisers: The events of the last 8-days, and the death of 212 people have opened gaping wounds in our society. There is too much pain around us.

Ray Phiri

As Ray Phiri & Nana Coyote said in their popular 1986 Stimela song, ‘Whispers in the Deep’:

We are all tributaries of that great river of pain
Flowing into one ocean
There is only one ocean
All our pain flowing into it

Music, and jazz in particular are historically allied to mourning and commemoration. If one takes, for instance, Stanley Cowell’s ‘Prayer for Peace’ in his album, Musa, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xfmhe9UMLJc&t=156s (starts at minute 8.51) written in the middle of the Vietnam war, we can see that what you have organised today is part of the jazz tradition. As a response to the Sharpeville massacre, US drummer Max Roach recorded ‘Tears for Johannesburg’ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vgNWYmgdO5Q in his album, We Insist! Freedom Now Suite in August 1960. ‘Our Prayer’ is a song recorded by Chris McGregor’s trio with Barre Phillips on bass and Louis Moholo on drums in 1969. Zim Ngqawana has his ‘Umthandazo (Prayer)’ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V8Qv-tM9hBo in his album, Zimology. Pianist Thandi Ntuli turns to ‘umthandazo’ (prayer) in her 2014 recording, The Offering. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ad0Hg06Wdrk

Jazz is a great contributor to a sub-genre called ‘musical retrospection’ rooted in prayer, commemoration and mourning. On example is Sisonke Xonti’s composition ‘Minneapolis’, in his album uGaba the Migration, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2QWqcxfnDXM – starts in minute 34:08) which was written in response to the killing in May 2020 of George Floyd by a white police officer from the Minneapolis Police Department.

Sisonke Xonti

Sikwebu goes on to thank the people gathered at eDikeni: Many of us are longing for fellowship, being with people we love or share common interests with. Connectedness between people is being dismembered daily. Not spared is even connectedness to ourselves. Relations between people are being severed all round. Zoom connections and MS Teams meetings are unable to replace traditional ways of connecting.

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Thanks go to Yonela Mnana’s Trio and its saxophonist guest, Sisonke Xonti, for closing the first set of ‘Umthandazo we Jazz’ with John Coltrane’s ‘Lonnie’s Lament’. Known for his reluctance to vocalise his political views, Coltrane took to his horn to record ‘Alabama’ and to express his anger triggered by the death of four girls who were killed when white supremacists bombed the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham in September 1963, a church that served as a venue for civil rights mass meetings in that city.

Dismembering Connectedness:

There are many causes to the butchering of human connections. Firstly, the pandemic and associated lockdowns are barring what humans have done throughout their existence; that is to connect and gather. Secondly, in a world where personal relations are highly monetized, the absence of income and loss of jobs are a further strain to relations between people. As we all know, watching and listening to live music as opposed to hearing a recording is very much part of the whole musical experience. Unfortunately, the pandemic has robbed us of this experience. Here, I am not referring to the so-called jazz festivals which are mainly not about music but pilgrimages bathed in corporate pomp and commercial showmanship driven by sponsor demands. What the pandemic has taken away from us are gatherings that normally occur when jazz appreciators meet on Sundays to share music. As the slogan of these jazz appreciation societies reminds us “ijazz ayinamona (jazz jettisons jealousy), ayinanzondo (grudge does not propel jazz) and ayifuni okunakwayo kodwa (jazz does not promote individualism). Jazz appreciators know: “Don’t listen alone. Jazz is to be shared”. Unfortunately, the pandemic has made difficult, if not impossible, these gatherings where we can share music. In addition to being unable to gather, there is also too much death and loss around us. Just this morning, we woke up to the news of guitarist Lawrence Matshiza’s passing.

But it is not only jazz lovers who are experiencing loss and are unable to gather. People cannot go to their stokvels and societies to connect. People cannot worship together. We cannot bury those who abruptly and without notice leave us forever. We are also unable to comfort each other in times of bereavement. The inability to connect is leading to anxieties. We are definitely living in an ‘age of uncertainties’.

The events of the last few days have led to many people in the affected communities not being able to buy bread. Even those with money have been unable to withdraw cash because of the destruction of ATMs and closed banks. I hope through this ‘Umthandazo we Jazz’, we can figure out how to deal with the situation that is causing anxiety and uncertainty.

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We have to find ways to get out of political and economic morass that led to the explosion that hit us last week. Serious thinking of how to get out of the socio-economic rut and the deep racialised furrows that we are in, is required. If we don’t find a map out, we will see a repeat of the volcano that engulfed us in the last 8-days.

The need for ‘an aesthetics of hope’

I suggest that ONE of the things we desperately need is what Sophia A. McClennen calls ‘an aesthetics of hope’. Based on a study of the work of Chilean activist and literary giant, Ariel Dorfman, McClennen defines ‘an aesthetics of hope’ as artistic expressions and literary practices “dedicated to the conviction that art plays an essential role in how we remember the past and imagine the future”.

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Dr. Sophia McClennen

McClennen identifies these core features:

• A belief that hope brings together desire and expectation, and that both these phenomena are products of past and present experiences. Because hope emerges out of individual and communal experiences, it is therefore not some airy-fairy notion. It is concrete and real.
• An approach that sees art as having the ability to reach back to the past, give a diagnosis of the present and project a future, and connect them.
• Hope is based on both reason/rationality and emotion, and sees no binaries between knowledge and feelings, and between mental and sensual.
• Hope enables us to “imagine the impossible, to see beyond the given, and to propose concrete alternatives visions”. This utopian nature of ‘an aesthetics of hope’ is necessary for resistance, struggle and political agency.
• Hope is not just a solitary or individual desire, but requires a collective agency. “An aesthetics of hope speaks to an individual within a collective”.
• Hope does not eliminate doubt, questioning and scepticism. There are therefore, differences between hope and ‘banal or blind optimism’.
• Art inspired by ‘an aesthetics of hope’ is not some form of individual and mental catharsis. Rather, that art seeks collective solutions to social dilemmas and “depends on the intersection of the self, an external reality and imagination”. Again, there is no separation between mind and body.
• Art must forge provocative connections with audiences, eschew the aesthetic of individualism, and support the association of the individual and the community.
• ‘An aesthetics of hope’ assumes an allied relationship between art and social rebellion. Art that is framed by ‘an aesthetic of hope’ orientates to protest and struggle.
• This art must all the time reflect on both “brutal reality and a hopeful future”.

Centring hope in the period that we are going through is vital. It is my strong belief that however justifiable and necessary anger is, rage is inherently unable to sustain an emancipatory project. Rage-centred politics may be powerful in its critique of the present but is weak on sketching an alternative future. We need HOPE that tomorrow will be better than today.

As it is always said from the pulpit: Indlala nentshutshiso yakaloku nje, azinakuthelekiswa nentlutha ezayo (Today’s misery, hunger and persecution must not take away our ability to dream of possibilities to reap bountifully in the future). We need to tell oppressors and exploiters as well as their hangers-on that we refuse to let them rob us of our ability to dream about freedom, emancipation and an alternative future, like what inspired slaves to resist enslavement, to revolt in plantations and seek refuge in maroon settlements. The ‘dreams of a better future’ gave colonised people an appreciation of their power to change oppressive conditions.

South African Jazz provides ‘an aesthetics of hope’

As an activist, I can identify moments where jazz provided ‘an aesthetics of hope’. The first example involves Abdullah Ibrahim’s tune, ‘Soweto is where it’s at’, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FF03w6Pajlg on the pianist’s 1975 African Herbs LP and features bassist Sipho Gumede, drummer Peter Morake, alto saxophonist Barney Rachabane, tenor saxophonist Basil Coetzee, saxophonist Duku Makasi and trumpeter Dennis Mpale. When the album came out, it was an era of ‘bum dance’ and I suspect that by releasing the recording, Rashid Vally’s As-Shams/The Sun recording company was keen to capitalise on the commercial success of an earlier release, ‘Mannenberg’ in 1974. In an interview with one of that era’s musicians, I was made aware that after that release, every jazz artist tried to come up with a long enough tune that could get a party going, sustain the get-together, and keep the ‘bum dancers’ on the floor throughout the night. ‘Soweto is where it’s at’ was not different to the songs of the time, until June 16 Youth Day exploded in violence. That track title proved prophetic.

June 16, 1976 Youth uprising- Credit: Sam Nzima

But to us activists of the time, what is interesting is how the initial ‘bum dance’ tune became a song to not forget about the 1976 uprising. I recall ‘Soweto is where it’s at’ being played in commemoration services in 1977 and thereafter. With the tune in the background, a young Fitzroy Ngcukana recited Oswald Mtshali ‘s poem ‘Sounds of a Cowhide Drum’ and read Langston Hughes’ verses from the poem, Dreams:

Dreams Hold fast to dreams
For if dreams die
Life is a broken-winged bird
That cannot fly.
Hold fast to dreams
For when dreams go
Life is a barren field
Frozen with snow.

The second example on the value of ‘an aesthetics of hope’ is when Hugh Masekela’s Give it up/District Six album landed in the country in 1980. This was a year of nationwide schools boycott and intensifying workers’ struggles on the shopfloor. Like Abdullah Ibrahim’s ‘Mannenberg’ , Masekela’s tunes, ‘Where It’s Happening’ and ‘African Herbs’, could keep a party going. Other songs were ‘Give it up’ by Masekela and Leo Chesson’s, and ‘District Six’ composed by the late Cape Town-born pianist Hotep Galeta https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LyqQkWk4pT8 when he and Masekela were in exile in the USA .

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Triggering Galeta to write the song were bulldozers which moved into District Six, flattened the multi-racial settlement in line with the segregationist Group Areas Act and moved more than 60 000 people to townships far away from the city centre. The chants ‘Sibuyele District Six’ in the song, in addition to reminding us of the callousness of demolishing of District Six, expressed the longing and hope to return one day to the site where the demolished settlement once stood. In August 1977, the government bulldozed a camp called Modderdam and other informal settlements in Cape Town as it tightened influx control measures. These threats of demolishment, like in Crossroads throughout the late 1970s, and the resistance to them, gave the song ‘District Six’ currency and immediate relevance.

‘Khawuphinde mzala’ and the urgency of repeated takes

I know that in jazz, recording a tune in ‘one take’ is a sign of originality and ingenuity. Dealing with inequality in our country is not going to be easy as the musical arrangements of the spiritual, ‘When the Saints Go Marching In’ suggests. To deal with the deep levels of poverty and economic marginalisation that drove the multitude of people to raid the malls last week which, in turn, made them vulnerable to manipulation by those with nefarious agendas, requires not ‘one take’ but ‘repeated takes’. Take the cue from Stimela’s tune, ‘Whispers in the Deep’, which the SABC immediately banned from the airwaves in 1986 just as the army occupied townships and detained some 26 000 people, the chorus, ‘Khawuphinde Mzala’ (keep repeating) became a call to activists to keep at it despite the odds.

To deal with the present situation, those who are interested in a different and better future must be prepared to make their contributions through different and ‘repeated takes’. Unfortunately, there are no shortcuts! While supporting the call for ‘an aesthetics of hope’, we must avoid overburdening the arts and think that artistic expressions and practices can solve all our problems. The Palestinian activist and public intellectual Edward Said, himself a pianist in the Western classical tradition, recognised that we must appreciate the deeper paradox of music which he described as “an art of expression without the capacity to say denotatively and concretely what is being expressed”. Efforts to engender ‘a politics of hope’ and build ‘a praxis of hope’ must accompany and complement calls for ‘an aesthetics of hope’. Without a broader movement driven by hope, ‘an aesthetics of hope’ will fail to deal with the challenges that we face.

I don’t think that there is a better way to conclude these reflections than to play the chorus in Stimela’s ‘Whispers in the deep’ (3.00-3.47) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qy9QPjUkvvM and share with you the lyrics of the song:

Sleep right in your eye
This is tasty food for rat and flies
Call me angry, call me mad
Soul whispers in the deep
The echo!
All throughout the land
Reaches out to find, a head
But finds an amputated stomp
That tells the strong of the lonely
And beats the rhythm of the flame
I’m inspired
I cannot understand hate
(Khawuphinde, Khawuphinde mzala)
Whose songs are as truthful?
As dream flows as steady as a stream
A stream of knowledge and of pain
Of one whose stance begin to wane
Allow the sleep to retire
Because their love blows out the fire
I can see you pointed finger
Your eyes binoculars
Whispers in the deep

We are all tributaries of that great of river of pain
Flowing into one ocean
There is only one ocean
All our pain flowing into it
But it did spill over
Spill over the wonders of love
Into one nation of love
Before we recognise that all the oceans
All the oceans are one
Khawuphinde mzala hmmm
Khawuphinde mzala hee!!
Khawuphinde mzala hmmm
Khawuphinde mzala whololo
Speak your mind
Don’t be afraid
Don’t whisper in the deep
Speak out your mind
Stand up! Wake up!
There’s still sleep right in your eye
Call me angry, call me mad
A soul that Whispers in the deep
I’m inspired
But I can’t understand hate
I’m inspired if I can’t understand it

*Dinga Sikwebu is a trade unionist based at the head office of the National Union of Metalworkers of South Africa (Numsa). Dinga considers himself as a follower and appreciator of jazz music. Previously, he has written on jazz in publications such as Uhuru, Creative Feel, City Press, Business Day and Sunday Independent.

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The Development of Jazz in South Africa

by The Late Prof. Hotep Idris Galeta

The Late Prof. Hotep Idris Galeta

One cannot write or talk about an art form without serious analysis of the numerous socio-political conditions responsible for its creation and development. The development of Jazz and its effect upon popular music in the United States and the rest of the world are the direct result of the African slave trade and the African Diaspora in the United States. This unique musical art form initiated by African/Americans during the latter part of the 19th century is probably the most influential musical phenomenon produced on the North American Continent.

The social conditions which spawned this dynamic art form is rooted in the human rights abuses and oppressive conditions experienced by Africans captured and uprooted from their traditional cultures then transported in the most barbaric and inhumane conditions to an alien environment as slaves. It is these dynamics coupled over the years with exposure to and assimilation of European arts and cultural forms that gave rise to new modes of musical expression which began to develop within the slave and Creole communities in and around New Orleans as well as other areas in the United States. These were the early embryonic beginnings and early developmental stages of what was to become known as Jazz.

South African Jazz has had many elements contributing to its evolution and development. The most prominent and significant being the rich eclectic cultural diversity of the country’s inhabitants and the influence of African/American musical culture upon it over the years. These two variants coupled with an environment of legislated racism, gross human rights violations, created the unique artistic forge and mould responsible for the evolution of South African Jazz. The first contact South Africans had with black Americans and black American music in particular was on the 30th of June in 1889 when the minstrel troop of Orpheus Myron McAdoo’s “Virginia Jubilee Singers” from Hampton Virginia appeared in concert in Cape Town. Their appearance was to have a significant impact upon the music scene as it later influenced the creation and formation of the “Kaapse Klopse” or “Coon Carnival.” To use the derogatory term of the racist American, south of that time, “Coon” being the equivalent of the South African derogatory term of “Kaffir”, “Cooley” or “Hotnot”.

It is not clearly known how such a derogatory racist American term “Coon’ came to be known in Cape Town, however given South Africa’s racist colonial past leaves little doubt for speculation as to it’s origin. The “Coon carnival’s” popularity decreased as the struggle for liberation intensified over the coming years. McAdoo’s Minstrels stayed and toured throughout South Africa for eighteen months visiting places such as Grahamstown, Kingwilliamstown and Alice where they visited and performed at Lovedale College. Musical history also indicates that their impact and influence on the performing arts culture of the Eastern Cape was quite significant as it influenced the rich Xhosa choral traditions in existence there. It is somehow ironic that this genre of Creole/African/American minstrel-spiritual music which became one of the key developmental elements of jazz in New Orleans in 1895 should also become a contributing factor and play a crucial role in the development of South African Jazz. The introduction of Jazz into South Africa took place shortly after the 1 World War, around 1918 and this introduction was again via Cape Town. The first Jazz recording was only made in 1917, and this by the all white New Orleans Band called “The Original New Orleans Dixieland Band”. Some of these early recordings were brought to Cape Town by American merchant seaman. Local white and coloured bands (the mixed racial population group resident in the Cape Town area) and even some visiting American musicians were instrumental in popularizing early New Orleans style jazz at the Cape after World War 1. To the white musicians who played it and the white audiences who danced to it in America and elsewhere in the British and European Imperial colonies it became known as Dixieland. Given the dreary social life and appalling conditions in the townships, it is easy to understand why the introduction of the radio, gramophone and recordings of New Orleans Jazz served as the biggest catalyst for the developing styles of early township music and black professional musicianship in the 1920’s. It was in Queenstown in the Eastern Cape however that Jazz first developed and started to take on its South African character. Of all black people in South Africa at that time, the Xhosa nation were the most educated as the result of the early establishment of the British Missionary school system

The introduction of Jazz into South Africa took place shortly after the 1st World War, 1918 and this introduction was again via Cape Town. The first Jazz recording was only made in 1917, and this by the all white New Orleans Band called “The Original New Orleans Dixieland Band”. Some of these early recordings were brought to Cape Town by American merchant seaman. Local white and coloured bands and even some visiting American musicians were instrumental in popularising early New Orleans style jazz at the Cape after World War 1. To the white musicians who played it and the white audiences who danced to it in America and elsewhere in the colonies it became known as Dixieland. Given the dreary social life and appalling conditions in the townships, it is easy to understand why the introduction of the radio, the gramophone and recordings of New Orleans Jazz served as the biggest catalyst for the developing styles of early township music and black professional musicianship in the 1920’s. It was in Queenstown in the Eastern Cape however that Jazz first developed and started to take on its South African character. Of all black people in South Africa that time, the Xhosa nation were the most educated as the result of the early establishment of British Mission schools.

The exposure to European Hymnody and classical music plus formal education gave rise to a black upper class and a group of very sophisticated musicians and composers who embraced this new black American art form called Jazz. In the 1920’s Queenstown became known as “Little Jazz Town” because of the New Orleans styles that were resident there.

The most popular bands there in the 20’s and 30’s were Meekly Matshikiza’s “Blue Rhythm Syncopators” and William Mbali’s “Bif Four” who entertained both whites and upper class blacks. Some of the earliest preserved examples of South African Jazz were recorded by Gumede’s Swing Band on Gallotone GE 942 in the late 1920’s. It was during the late 20’s that Boet Gashe an itinerant organist from Queenstown popularised the three chord system, the forerunner to the Marabi and Mbaqanga styles that were later to be perfected in the township shebeen environments of Johannesburg and Marabastad situated on the outskirts of Pretoria. Sophiatown the legendary ghetto of Johannesburg became the experimental ground for this vibrant new township music that was to under go further innovation during the 1930’s into the 50’s. The music of the townships served as an important platform and vehicle for developing singers and instrumentalists. Larger 15 piece bands such as the “Jazz Maniacs” were formed by popular Doornfontein shebeen pianist turned saxophonist, Solomon “Zulu Boy” Cele who saw the possibility of developing marabi into an orchestral form. This band was to feature and develop some of the legendary township Jazz players. They included saxophonists Mackay Davashe, Zakes Nkosi, Ntemi Pilliso and Wilson “Kink Fish” Silgee. The Jazz Maniacs are significant because they carried the spirit of marabi to the dance halls and provided inspiration for a new breed of emergent Jazz musicians such as Dollar Brand now known as Abdullah Ibrahim, Hugh Masekela, Kiepie Moeketsie, Jonas Gwangwa, Sol Klaaste and Gwigwi Mwerebi. Some of the legendary Sophiatown vocal groups and singers associated with the “Jazz Maniacs” are the Manhattan Brothers, The Quad Sisters, The Woody Wood Peckers and a group that was to launch four great individual singers, The Skylarks, consisting of Miriam Makeba, Abigail Khubeka, Letta Mbulu and Mary Rabotaba. The demise of marabi big bands can be directly attributed to encroaching legislated racism, forced removals and regulations forbidding blacks to appear at venues where liquor was served.

As dance halls in Sophiatown and other areas around the country were destroyed, black musicians were shut out of the inner cities or had to play behind a curtain when playing with some of their white counterparts at white only clubs, Jazz was gradually being deprived of its multi racial audience. The 1950’s are remembered as the days of passive resistance against the Nationalist government’s institutionalised racism, but it is also remembered as a great age of Jazz development in South Africa. A new strain of Jazz began to emerge which contained a greater American influence. This new strain was the result of the Bebop revolution in the U.S. young emergent musicians such as Dollar Brand, Chris McGregor, Johnny Gertse, Sammy Moritz, Makaya Ntoshoko Mra “Cristopher Columbus” Ngcukana, Jimmy Adams, “Cups and Saucers” Kanuka, Hugh Masekela, Kippie Moeketsie, Henry February, Anthony and Richard Schilder, Harold Japhta and this writer included. We took to this new exciting Jazz form from America like ducks to water. The real milestone occurred when one of my future mentors to be, visiting American pianist and Jazz educator John Mehegan came to South Africa in the late 50’s on one of those State Department sponsored tours. After the tour he assembled a local group to record an album for Gallo Records entitled “Jazz in Africa”. Beside Mehegan on piano the group consisted of Hugh Masekela on Trumpet, Jonas Gwangwa on Trombone, Kiepie Moeketsie on Alto Saxophone, Gene Latimore on Drums and Claude Shange on Bass. When Mehegan departed for the U.S. Dollar Brand added Johnny Gertse on Bass and Makaya Ntoshoko on Drums, creating a new rhythm section to which he added Masekela, Gwangwa and Moeketsie, calling this new band “The Jazz Epistles” One of the most dynamic and creative bands of the late 50’s. The band recorded two albums “The Jazz Epistles Vol. 1 and Vol. 2” played a few gigs around the country and disbanded when Masekela and Gwangwa left to study in the U.S. in 1960. That unfortunately was the end of the line for that kind of American Jazz in South Africa. Many of the musicians who played it left the country because of the increasingly repressive political situation, this writer included; many stayed and continued to produce creative music in a political environment that became increasingly oppressive and brutal.

In the Western Cape, musicians such as Basil “Mannenberg” Coetzee, Robbie Jansen, Paul Abrahams, Chris Schilder, Gilbert Matthews, and many others to numerous to mention gave their commitment, time and creativity to the struggle for democracy. They used South African Jazz as a platform and became deeply involved in the struggle for democracy on a creative level using their music as a clarion call for liberation at United Democratic Front political rallies in the townships. Today in a democratic South Africa Jazz is thriving in an environment of freedom and racial reconciliation. At present there exists an up and coming core of extremely masterful young musicians, both black and white. Some of them are graduates from tertiary institutions here in South Africa with vibrant jazz education programs and some come from community jazz education programs. Gloria Bosman, Judith Sephuma, Melanie Scholtz, Zim Ngqawana, Andile Yenana, Lulu Gontsana, Mark Fransman, Buddy Wells, Paul Hamner, Keshivan Naidoo, Marcus Wyatt, Herbie Tshoali, Themba Mkize and the late Moses Taiwa Molelekwa. These are some of the new innovative core of younger South African musicians who are responsible for taking the music into a new creative direction. Their vision and innovative approaches is creating a significant impact upon the South African jazz scene by the development of new concepts and ideas within the South African jazz genre. This bodes extremely well for the development of jazz in South African which like in nazi Germany some sixty odd years ago had been suppressed and stifled during the turbulent apartheid era.

Around the beginning of the 20th century, the earliest Jazz piano style emerged, centred in New Orleans. This style was created and initially dominated by the pianist Joseph Ferdinand La Menthe, better known as “Jelly Roll Morton” (1885-1941) Morton was a combination of ragtime pianist, composer, blues and Jazzman rolled into one. He began playing professionally in the “Redlight District” of New Orleans called Storyville in 1902 when he was seventeen. Morton is also regarded as the first true Jazz composer. He was the first to write down his Jazz arrangements in musical notation and was the originator of a large number of pieces that became staples in the Jazz repertoire of that time. His arrangement of his own composition “Jelly Roll Blues” in 1915 was the first published Jazz arrangement in history. He became an itinerant pianist in 1904 and started to wander throughout the U.S. stopping off in places such as St Louis at the time of the Worlds Fair, then on to Chicago, the West Coast into Canada and Alaska and returning to Chicago by 1923 where he made his first recording. “Jelly Roll” set a precedent by playing piano at the recording session for the all white band “The New Orleans Rhythm Kings”. Morton is undoubtedly the father of solo Jazz piano. His piano style represented a synthesis of the chief elements of the blues, piano rags and orchestral Jazz. A few years before his death in 1941 he capped his eventful career with a massive recording project at the Library of Congress in Washington D.C. (May-July 1938) where he related his version of the history of Jazz and illustrated it with piano solos and song, making fifty two records with more than one hundred pieces recorded. Allan Lomax the American folk music historian interviewed Morton and supervised this historic recording project. Few of the people he influenced recorded in his day. Today however there are one or two “Jelly Roll” Morton specialists who attempt to preserve his style the way he played it. James Dapogny is one of them; having recorded a C.D. on 22/09/1993 entitled “Original Jelly Roll Blues” on the Warner/Electra/Asylum Label.

During the 1920’s it was generally believed that Chicago had the best black bands and that New York City was home to some of the finest Jazz pianists.

This belief amongst musicians and Jazz fans was predicated upon the fact that during the 1920’s the Harlem district of New York City became the Center for the development of a highly technical and hard driving solo piano style as “Harlem Stride”. The master of this new approach in the early 1920’s was James P Johnson (1891-1955). Johnson began playing ragtime piano professionally in 1904 and gradually adapted and innovated his style to the changing times of the post World War 1 era. The highly competitive spirit that existed amongst black pianists of the period led them to practice constantly in order to excel at the frequent “cutting” competitions that separated the “wheat from the chaff”. Johnson was a prolific composer, composing most of the music he played but publishing very little. His “Carolina Shout” became a test piece for would be Jazz pianist of the era because of its rhythmic complexity and speed. Johnson’s protégé, Thomas “Fats” Waller (1904-1943) was regarded by some as representing the summation of the Harlem style and the link between it and modern Jazz pianism. Waller also made another contribution to Jazz history by successfully adapting the style of Jazz pianism to the Hammond and pipe organ. “Fats” Waller became the most widely known of the Harlem pianists. He toured quite extensively throughout the U.S. and Europe as a solo pianist, accompanist and singer. He was also a prolific composer of Jazz and popular songs. His well known compositions are “Honey Suckle Rose”, “Ain’t Misbehaving” and “I’m Gonna Sit Right down and Write Myself a Letter”. The Harlem pianists not only influenced their contemporaries, but also later generations of Jazzmen. In the Midwestern part of the United States during the 1920’s and 30’s Earl “Fatha” Hines was laying down the foundation for a deferent kind of Jazz piano. His pianism first attracted the attention when he played in Chicago with Louis Armstrongs “Hot Five” band. Hines developed a piano style in which his right hand played melodic figures similar to those of a trumpet, but in octaves, while his left hand provided the firm bass as in a rhythm section. His style combined with the smoother approach of Waller, influenced most pianists of the next generation, notably Teddy Wilson (1912-1986) who was to play a crucial role in the band of Benny Goodman during the swing era of the late 1930’s into the 1940’s and Art Tatum who performed mostly as a soloist and who was regarded with awe for his phenomenal technique and complex virtuosity.

After World War 1 leading European composers such as Alban Berg, Paul Hindemith, Darius Milhaud, Maurice Ravel, Igor Stravinsky and Arnold Schoenberg began to take cognisance of the rich promise and vitality of Jazz and began to incorporate some aspects of the style into their works. These composers first heard authentic Jazz when touring black Jazz ensembles played in Europe or when they the composers visited the United States; for example Milhaud when he visited Harlem in the 1920’s and Ravel when he went to Chicago in 1928. The best known works inspired by Jazz are Darius Milhaud’s “ La Creation Du Monde” (The Creation of The World) (1923) Ravels “Piano Concerto In D” (1931) and Stravinsky’s “ The Ebony Concerto For Dance Orchestra” (1946). Jazz also inspired a number of American composers to write works employing elements within the Jazz genre. Amongst the most enduring of the symphonic works have been Aaron Copeland’s “Music for the Theatre” (1925) and George Gershwin’s “Rhapsody in Blue” (1924) “Piano Concerto in F” (1925) and “An American in Paris” (1928)

The evolution of Jazz piano since the post -World War 1 period, right up to the present day is often the result of innovative, impressionistic European classical influences introduced into Jazz, especially Jazz keyboard harmony. These influences and others will continue to change and mould the face of Jazz and Jazz piano in particular, as the influences of a broader global culture impacts on its evolution. During the 1940’s Jazz piano underwent another major change with the introduction of the Bebop style. This radical new style was introduced upon the Jazz scene by a group of musicians who used to get together after working hours at a club in Harlem called “Minton’s Playhouse” There they would play and exchange musical ideas until the early hours of the morning. Usually the group consisted of pianist Thelonius Monk (1917-1982) drummer Kenny Clarke (1914-1986) guitarist Charlie Christian (1919-1942) and trumpeter John Berks “Dizzy” Gillespie (1917-1992). The alto saxophonist Charles Christopher Parker (1929-1955) also known as “Bird” also joined the group of experimenters and became one of the exponents of Bebop. Parkers’s contribution to the evolution of Bebop is enormous. He composed quite a number of innovative pieces that has become Bebop standards. His most well known pieces are “Now is The Time” “Scrapple for the Apple” and “Moose the Mooch”.

Bebop was still based on the principle of improvisation over a chord progression, but the tempos were faster, the rhythms extremely syncopated, the phrases longer and more complex with exciting new tone colours and dissonant harmonies. The melodic signpost of this new music was the “flattened fifth” of the major scale, which thereafter joined the other “blue notes” or “bent tones” of black music. Thelonius Monk one of the revolutionary pianists of the Bebop movement, pianistically came from the stride piano style of James P. Johnson. Where as most of the Bebop players were playing lines that had a melodic curve, Monks lines had sharp angles. His improvisation was spare and choppy and his playing always provocative. As a composer he contributed numerous pieces that are standards in the Jazz repertoire. They are “In Walked Bud” “Well You Needn’t” “Epistrophy” and that evergreen Jazz classic and beautiful ballad “Round Midnight”

The most innovative pianist to emerge during the Bebop revolutionary years was Earl “Bud” Powell (1924-1966). Powell was a classically trained pianist whose fast highly individual and technically proficient style laid its stamp upon this new music. Bud Powell was undoubtedly the most overwhelming creative pianist in the “Hothouse” of Bebop. His powerful driving style was incredible and his album “The Bud Powell Trio” recorded by Blue Note Records in the 1950’s is a perfect example of those qualities. Monk and Powell were to become two of the major influences on modern Jazz piano. In the late 50’s the pianist and composer Dave Brubeck born in 1920, a student of Darius Milhaud and Arnold Schoenberg achieved great popularity with his blend of classical music and Jazz utilising different meters of time. This was to be another innovative step in the development of Jazz piano. Jazz piano has developed very rapidly over the last forty years. This rapid development has been largely due to the emergence of younger conservatory trained pianists. During the late 1960’s and early 70’s a small number of highly regarded Jazz musicians were appointed to professorial positions at academic institutions in the U.S. allowing them to combine teaching with touring, recording and lecturing. They filled positions as guest lecturers, composers in residence, and artists in residence, visiting professors and tenured professors. The by-product of this innovative concept at academic institutions was that the young aspiring Jazz artist could now study the art form at tertiary level.

By the 1980’s there were sixty or more academic institutions that had established Jazz Studies Programmes in the U.S. This new generation of tertiary educated musicians were unlike any previous ones in the history of Jazz. The most striking feature of this group was their youth at the time of attaining “Super Stardom”. Many are and were in their twenties. The came well prepared as they had begun their musical studies as children, had played in grade or high school bands or attended summer music camps and later went on to study music further in college. There they were exposed to both the Western Classical and African American musical traditions. They then incorporated their knowledge and skills of advanced keyboard harmony and theory into the development of Jazz pianism. This tradition continues up to the present and will continue into the future as more tertiary institutions in the U.S. and around the world offer Jazz and Jazz education programmes.

Pianists such as Herbie Hancock, Chick Correa, Bill Evans, Mulgrew Miller, Kenny Barron, McCoy Tyner, Keith Jarrett, Geoff Keezer, Stephen Scott, Bennie Green, Brad Maldau and a host of future young emergent pianists who had this exposure to formal musical education will continue to change and mould the face of Jazz and Jazz piano.

Jazz remains alive, vibrant and well and continues to cross the barriers and bring people together in the joy of music.

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Bebop and Beyond the Blues – South African Jazz History

By Struan Douglas of Afribeat

“Jazz is a music which has its roots in a life of insecurity, in which a single moment of self-realisation, of love, light and movement, is extraordinarily more important than a whole lifetime. From a situation in which violence is endemic, where a man escapes a police bullet only to be cut down by a knife-happy African thug, has come an ebullient sound more intuitive than any outside the US of what jazz is supposed to celebrate – the moment of love, lust, bravery, incense, fruition, and all those vivid dancing good times of the body when the now is maybe all there is.”
Lewis Nkosi, journalist, in Jazz in Exile, 1966

“Sophiatown was a very beautiful place. There was music everywhere, flowing out of every house, from every corner and every shebeen. Rhythm was the unsaid word. There was mbaqanga, marabi, kwela jive, and on Sundays the gospel choirs marched down Toby street singing, and we always joined them. And then there was jazz at night. We used to go to `Sis Petty’s shebeen and watch the Jazz Maniacs and listen to recorded American jazzmen. Inside it was packed, you wouldn’t be able to move. But when the jazz came on, those bodies made space. Nobody would be standing still. Outside, `Sis Petty’s kids would be watching for the police, but the jazz was so good they would keep on coming inside. `Sis Petty would have to chase them out, and the men would carry on drinking as much as they could as quickly as they could, just in case the police arrived. Everybody used to meet there, musicians, artists, intellectuals, writers, politicians and boozers. And all of us, the young aspirants, were growing up in this cultural explosion, even Felicia [Mabuza Suttle]!”

Singing icon Thandi Klassens’ story is one of many from the racy, vibrant and seemingly indestructible Sophiatown of the early fifties. Along with Langa, Cape Town and Port Elizabeth, Sophiatown was a place where black urban culture was erupting. And where there was black urban culture, there was jazz. And everybody wanted a piece of it.

All over the country, people tuned into Voice of America to hear what was hip. For a while, it was the big band sounds of Benny Goodman and Duke Ellington. But when bebop came, Charlie ‘Bird’ Parker and Dizzy Gillespie were all over the radio, everywhere. The white musicians who’d been to America spread the sound, magazines talked about it, and you could by it from the avant-garde record stores or American sailors who often docked on our shores. Pianist ‘Dollar’ Brand (who later changed his name to Abdullah Ibrahim) got his nickname because he always had a dollar in his pocket in case he came across one of these jazz records. City life was very impressed by bebop and its hip style and happening jazzmen. Twotone shoes, Stetsons, Buicks, Chevys and suits were the image, and the gents were impeccably dressed and smoothly mannered, for the chicks, the bebop and the fun of it.

All over the country, people tuned into Voice of America to hear what was hip. For a while, it was the big band sounds of Benny Goodman and Duke Ellington. But when bebop came, Charlie ‘Bird’ Parker and Dizzy Gillespie were all over the radio, everywhere. The white musicians who’d been to America spread the sound, magazines talked about it, and you could by it from the avant-garde record stores or American sailors who often docked on our shores. Pianist ‘Dollar’ Brand (who later changed his name to Abdullah Ibrahim) got his nickname because he always had a dollar in his pocket in case he came across one of these jazz records. City life was very impressed by bebop and its hip style and happening jazzmen. Twotone shoes, Stetsons, Buicks, Chevys and suits were the image, and the gents were impeccably dressed and smoothly mannered, for the chicks, the bebop and the fun of it.

And in the blazen path set by the American cats, South African jazz developed, emerging out of a similar socio-cultural oppression, as a healing and transformative tool. Uniting the two suppressive streams into a form of music that had the expression of its roots, but with a unique African flavour.

One of the great pioneers was Cape Town’s Chris Macgregor. He was studying at the University of Cape Town, but his interest was in what the black musicians were doing. He was energetic and enthusiastic, always practicing and composing, and defying ‘illegal gathering’ laws in order to meet and play with the musicians he wanted to. And that’s how the Blue Notes came together. Chris often went to The Vortex jazz club in Long Street, a popular venue where musicians jammed together. Dudu Pukwana was the regular pianist, he’d rehearse during the day, perform at nights and sleep in the basement. Chris and him talked about getting a band together, but they were both piano players. Dudu, however, had always wanted to play sax, so they hired one and the Blue Notes took off.

At the same time, the Jo’berg scene was being set alight by Kippie Moeketsi, who modelled himself on the erratic, hip and stylish Charlie Parker, innovating and improvising on the saxophone with similar brilliance. He joined young trumpeter Hugh Masekela, trombonist Jonas Gwangwa and arrangement genius Abdullah Ibrahim to form The Jazz Epistles. As much as Kippie was the energy and virtuoso of the group, Abdullah was the composer and leader, intense and passionate. Long time friend, Vince Colbe, describes him as ‘a deadly serious bloke’. “He used to lock himself in his room with only bread and milk and compose. I remember going to his house and listening to one of his tracks, Eclipse at Dawn. I teased him you know. `Dollar, play something dancy!’ `You’re a prostitute!’ he replied. `You’re prostituting the art, you must speak the truth.’ That’s how intense he was. That’s why there was an edge to his sound, a hauntingness, almost a howl in the wilderness.”

The Jazz Epistles were the first black South African group to record an album but broke up only six months after forming. Other than Abdullah, the band joined the all African opera, King Kong. “It was a ground-breaking musical, very powerful.” says Hugh Masekela. “Jonas and I were the copyists and Kippie was one of the arrangers. It was like an assembly line, with the arrangers in one room, and us in another. They would churn out the arrangements and bring the orchestration to me and Jonas and we’d do the parts, and then rehearse it with a cast of seventy. It was star studded, with some of the prettiest women I’ve seen in my life. A wonderful experience!”

King Kong was South Africa’s first jazz export and a major achievement in escaping political parochialism and taking our unique sounds to the West End. It also started the exodus of musicians to foreign and free pastures, where they could explore themselves and their art. Abdullah went to Switzerland, Hugh to New York to study, and Jonas his own way. The Blue Notes hung around until ’63, touring the country and then playing the Cold Castle Jazz festival in Jo’berg. With the politics becoming impossible and his feet itching for departure, Chris put together a 17 piece band featuring some of the best musicians across the country as a symbolic climax to the end of a rich period of jazz. It was a last minute affair. Chris composed furiously, whilst his wife arranged financing and facilities. Even though there was no time for rehearsing, the individual skill of the players saw the band to victory and a recording.

On this high note, the Blue Notes joined the other musicians in exile. Kippie tried to keep the memories alive, but he never got over the departure of the other jazz players, and became overwhelmed by the political frustrations. The Sharpeville massacre had ripped the heart out of the nation and the situation was deteriorating. Apartheid was serious about destroying this vibrant era, and no exceptions would be made for jazz. It was an expressive force seeking musical and social equality, and apartheid hated that.

Radio restrictions, big police clampdowns, violence and the destruction of vibrant communities ensued, leaving a big void for those who stayed behind in the ‘Verwoerd to Vorster’ years. Musicians went back to 9-5 jobs. `Cups `n Saucers’ Ngcukana, for example, Cold Castle musician of the year in ’62, was forced to work in a shoe store and never played again. Jazz lost a lot of its great talents and a lot of its identity, explains his son Ezra. “Things were wild, restrictive and so unnecessary then. I remember suggesting the name ‘Amoeboid Movement’ for a song, and just because of the political perceptions of the word `movement’, it was never given airplay.”

Abdullah returned in the mid-70s to record two albums, one with Kippie and the other with Cape Town musos Robbie Jansen and the late Basil `Manenberg’ Coetzee. With them he reworked a ’50s jazz mbaqanga melody into the quintessential Cape Town anthem, `Manenberg’.

But it was Saxophonist Winston Mankunku who anchored the scene, particularly in the late sixties, occasionally playing behind curtains under the alias ‘Winston Man’ to conceal his race, or performing out in Swaziland. His music was very avant-garde, an expression of society’s desperation for freedom. Wild and freeform, no restrictions for that. In ’68 he recorded the classic ‘Yakhal Nkomo’ (Bellowing Bull), “a scream for equality and freedom, a shout for recognition of the pain we were feeling,” explains Winston.

Now, many years later, the voice that was lost has been rediscovered and reinvented in many ways, by both the returned pioneers and new musicians. Hugh’s 1997 album ‘Black to the Future’ shows a sensitivity to the music of youth culture, mixing up the old and the new, mbaqanga, jazz and kwaito. Winston’s latest album ‘Molo Africa’ recently won the SAMA award for best traditional album. And Jonas’ 1999 A Temporary Inconvenience proves that he’s still playing with the touch that made the Jazz Epistles pioneers and legends.

Of the newer names, multi-instrumentalist Zim Ngqawana is playing wild and adventurous jazz in the mould of the Blue Notes and the Jazz Epistles. And `young lions’ like McCoy Mrubata, Paul Hanmer, Moses Molelekwa and Marcus Wyatt are igniting the scene with always fresh and often funky interpretations of old styles with new sounds, acknowledging the past and experimenting with the cutting edge, “in a conscious attempt to find ourselves,” says Moses. “As a country we are finally back in touch with ourselves and the rest of the world,” says Hugh Masekela. “It’s great to be South African and its great to have the music and we are exploring this freedom and discovering new and beautiful things.”

Struan is the author of the Story of South African Jazz, Volume 1

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